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Finance GlossaryDebt To Equity Ratio
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Debt To Equity Ratio

Definition of Debt To Equity Ratio

The debt to equity ratio is a measure of a company’s financial health that’s calculated by dividing liabilities from shareholder equity.

Debt to equity ratio: Total liabilities / Shareholder equity

A high debt to equity ratio means that a company is taking on more debt to run its business. A low debt to equity ratio means that a company is operating at low debt.

That’s why investors calculate the D/E ratio to understand a company’s ability to operate without debt. Generally, D/E is used for comparative analysis within sectors, not across industries because the ideal debt ratio may vary.

Related Terms

Bought Out Deal

A bought-out deal is a stock offering where an investment bank buys the entire issue of shares from a company. In turn, the investment bank will attempt to sell the shares to other investors. A deal of this kind has two benefits:

  • The company need not worry about subscription as the investment bank will purchase the entire offering
  • The investment bank can negotiate with the company and get the shares at a discount

That said, there are risks to a bought out deal like:

  • It is up to the investment bank to sell the shares to investors in order to recoup the principal or make a profit
  • The investment bank also runs the risk of receiving no interest in the shares from other investors
  • Guarantee purchase

If the issue size of the bought-out deal is large enough, the investment bank may team up with others to fulfil the purchase.

Cheapest To Deliver

Cheapest to deliver (CTD) refers to the cheapest or lowest priced security in a futures contract that a seller can deliver to a buyer who holds a long position. Here’s the formula to calculate the cheapest security that can be delivered:

  • Short position: Current price of security + accrued interest
  • Long position: Settlement price x conversion factor + accrued interest

Ex-Dividend Date

The ex-dividend date is the trading day on and after which a new buyer of the stock is not entitled to any dividends. Most traders say that a stock has gone ex-dividend when this happens.

Traditionally, the ex-dividend date is set a day before the record date when a company evaluates its records for existing shareholders. If a trader buys a stock that has gone ex-dividend from a seller, the one who'll get dividends is the seller.

Bonds

Bonds are fixed income securities issued in exchange for a loan, generally by governments and corporations. A bond will generate a fixed interest rate on top of the principal across a fixed time period. A bond market is a place where bonds are issued, bought, and sold. Bonds are issued in exchange for a loan generally by governments and corporations.

The quality of a bond can be understood by its credit rating, which is nothing but the creditworthiness of the company issuing it. The best bonds in India are known to have the following credit rating:

  • SOV: Only for government bonds
  • AAA: Highest
  • AA+: High-medium
  • A+: Upper-medium
  • BBB+: Lower-medium
  • BB+: Speculative
  • B+: Highlight speculative
  • CCC+: Risky
  • CC: Extremely risky

Hard Underwriting

A hard underwriting occurs when the underwriter agrees to buy their share of stock before the IPO opens. This is known as hard underwriting because in a regular underwriting process, the underwriter is liable to buy all unsold shares after the issue opens.

Dividend Stocks

Dividend stocks are shares of companies that redistribute their profits to shareholders in the form of dividends. Such companies are typically industry or sector leaders with stellar reputations and track records.

How much dividend a company offers can be calculated with the dividend yield ratio or dividend per share.

Investors prefer to buy dividend stocks because they can either reinvest the dividends to buy more shares or earn passive income. Examples of dividend stocks in India include:

  • Coal India
  • Indian Oil Corporation (IOC)
  • ONGC
  • SAIL
  • Tata Steel



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