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Fair Value

Definition of Fair Value

The fair value of a stock, product, or service is the price at which the buyer and seller willingly agree on without being on the losing end of the deal. Think of fair value as a win-win situation for both parties, assuming that all conditions are normal.

Say Mr. Apple is offered to buy shares of Mr. Orange’s company at Rs. 1000 per share. Mr. Apple evaluates the business and figures out that he can sell the same shares for Rs. 1200, even though Mr. Orange is content to sell the shares at Rs. 200 lower. Both parties agree on the deal at Rs. 1000 because both view it as a good deal.

The formula for the fair value of a stock or index is:

Fair Value = Cash * { 1 + r (X / 360)} - D

Where,

Cash = Latest stock or index value

r = interest rate on purchase

x = number of days to contract expiry

Dividend = Dividends

The definition of fair value is slightly different in the futures market. In the futures market, the fair value is reached when the supply meets the demand, which simply means that the spot price is equal to the futures contractprice.

However, due to inherent volatility of the markets, the price of a futures contract is known to fluctuate around the fair value of a stock or index. Thus, in the fair value in the context of futures is what the price of the contract should be, given the value of the stock or index, dividends, and others.

Related Terms

Basing

Basing happens when a security trades sideways after prolonged periods of falling prices.

As a result, the security forms a “base” or flat pattern which means there is little to no upward or downward movement and a decline in volatility.

This may go on for a relatively long time but is crucial as basing is an indicator of any meaningful reversal that may happen.

Average Daily Trading Volume

The Average Daily Trading Volume (ADTV) is a technical indicator that indicates the number of shares that were bought and sold on average across one or more trading days.

A high ADTV means that more investors are interested in a stock while a low ADTV implies that a stock isn’t on the radar of many investors. The formula for Average Daily Trading Volume (ADTV) is:

ADTV x days = Total trading volume of stock across x days / x days

Broker

A broker is an intermediary between a securities exchange and investors. Only registered entities can place trades on a securities exchange. These members can be individuals or firms known as stockbrokers.

That’s why investors must go through a broker when they want to trade or invest in stocks, ETFs, futures, options, and others.

European Option

A European Option allows a trader to exercise the contract only on the day of expiry. For example, let’s say an options trader bought a European Call Option that expires on 01-01-2023.

The options trader can only exercise the call option, that is, buy the underlying assets on the day of expiry which is 01-01-2023. In India, traders can only engage in European options.

Founders Stock

The term founders stock refers to shares issued to the founders of a company. This type of stock is issued at face value and carries a vesting period, which is a lock-in period during which the shares cannot be sold.

During this period, the founders stock may not earn any returns, unless there are dividends attached to it. Founders stock is not an accounting term - it is used colloquially to denote the shares issued to founders.

Contract Note

A contract note is a compilation of all the trades and transactions made through a stockbroker on a stock exchange. It is a legal record that all recognized stockbrokers must send to traders and investors at the end of each trading day.



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  1. Stock brokers can accept securities as margins from clients only by way of pledge in the depository system w.e.f September 01, 2020.
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