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Finance GlossaryCapital Gains
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Capital Gains

Definition of Capital Gains

A capital gain is a profit an investor or trader earns by selling shares, commodities, futures, options, currencies, and other assets. More literally, a profit is a gain on the capital that’s invested - hence the term capital gains.

Say someone buys a share for Rs. 1000 and sells it for Rs. 1100. The capital gains will be Rs. 100 in this case. The taxation of capital gains varies based on the asset type and the duration after which it was sold.

Related Terms

Anchoring and Adjustment

Anchoring is a bias that drives people to make decisions that are based on (anchored to) pre-existing notions, ideas, and suggestions that may or may not be true.

Adjustments around anchoring are common as it becomes a starting point for many when it comes to decision-making.

For example, someone is anchored to a financial model or strategy. They may choose to use the anchor in situations where it may not fit and as a result, may end up getting an unfavorable outcome.

Face Value

The term face value refers to the actual price of a stock that’s obtained by dividing a company’s net value by its total shares outstanding. In India, the face value of shares can range from Rs. 1 to Rs. 100.

However, the market value of the share may vary. At times, the difference can be drastic. For example, the face value of an MRF share is Rs. 10 but the market value (LTP) of the same share is Rs. 86,313.45.

Face value is also known as nominal value or par value. The latter is used frequently in the case of bonds.

The face value of a bond is the amount that an investor receives from the issuer on maturity. Similar to stocks, bonds and other fixed income instruments may have a different face value and market value.

At The Money

At The Money is a scenario in which the strike price of an options contract is the same as the market price of its underlying security.

Exercising an option At The Money can lead to a loss as the premium paid for the contract won’t be recovered.

That said, At The Money is known to be a positive indicator as it indicates the option may soon have intrinsic value.

Capital Gains Exemption

Capital gains exemption is the tax break that a government offers on profits earned by selling assets. Generally, an investor must pay a tax on the short-term capital gains or long-term capital gains earned.

But in certain cases, the government allows investors to offset taxes. For example, if an investor sells property and reinvests the entire amount back again into another property, they can avail of capital gains exemption.

Accrued Interest

An accrued interest is the interest incurred in the current accounting period but the actual interest is due to be paid or received in the next accounting period.

Forex Futures Trading

Forex futures trading is the buying and selling of exchange-traded futures contracts for currency pairs . A forex futures contract gives the holder the right and the obligation to buy or sell a pair of currencies at a predetermined price and date. The important components of forex futures trading include:

  • Forex pair: the currency you will buy in exchange of the other at the end of the futures contract
  • Lot size: the value of the currency included in the contract
  • Contract price: the price at which the futures contract is trading
  • Spot price: the latest forex rate for the currency pair, different from the contract price
  • Margin: the amount of money you’re required to deposit with your currency trading platform
  • Tick size: the minimum amount by which a forex futures contract can move, which is Rs. 0.0025 in India
  • Expiration date: the preagreed day on which the contract must be excercised or squared off

Forex futures trading in India is possible through three exchanges: NSE, BSE, and MSE. The forex futures contracts are standardized derivatives that can be traded between 9.00 AM to 7.30 PM. Forex futures in India are cash settled, meaning profits or losses are settled in INR while the base currency is not delivered.




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