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Finance GlossaryFixed Income Securities
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Fixed Income Securities

Definition of Fixed Income Securities

Fixed Income Securities are issued in exchange for a loan and offer returns to investors in the form of a fixed interest rate. That’s why they are referred to as “fixed income” securities. The common types of fixed income securities are: Firm Allotment is the process of allocating shares during an IPO to investors who are not considered to be retail public investors. The firm allotment is done as per SEBI guidelines, which dictate that a portion of the IPO can be allocated to the likes of Mutual Funds, regular employees (permanent), and others.

  • Certificates of Deposit
  • Corporate Bonds
  • Municipal Bonds
  • Treasury Bonds
  • Treasury Bills

Such securities fall under the category of debt instruments, which means they do not give investors equity shares or ownership in the company but only a promise of returning the principal with interest on maturity.

Often referred to as the coupon rate, the interest on a fixed income security is determined by the creditworthiness of the issuing company or entity as well as the latest interest rate set by the government.

Fixed income securities also confer seniority of claim to investors, which means that the investors who’ve helped finance the loan will receive their money first in the event a company is liquidated.

Related Terms

Derivatives Trading

Derivatives trading means buying and selling derivatives contracts like futures, options, swaps, and forwards either on an exchange or over the counter.

Trading derivatives means trading contracts that derive their value from an underlying asset like stocks, commodities, currencies, indexes, interest rates, and more.

The buyer of the contract can decide to take delivery to the underlying asset or offset it with an opposite contract.

Equilibrium Price

Equilibrium price is achieved when the demand is exactly equal to the supply. It is a state where buyers and sellers have enough goods and services to meet each other’s demands - not more, not less. One could say that equilibrium price is a perfectly balance state in the market.

Commodity Futures

A commodity futures is a contract between two parties to buy or sell an underlying commodity like gold, silver, corn, and others are a pre-determined price and date.

A commodity futures contract is an obligation that’s entered into not just by retail traders but also companies who want to lock in a favorable price. This is the place to understand all about futures contracts in trading.

Free Cash Flow

Free float market capitalization is the market cap of a company based on the total freely available publicly traded outstanding shares. The formula to calculate free float market capitalization is:

Free float market capitalization = Share Price x (Number of Shares Available for Trading – Private and Locked-In Shares)

When calculating the free float market cap of a company, the number of shares held privately or the shares that are locked-in are not taken into account. Typically, these shares are held by promoters and the government.

Cash Flow Statement

A cash flow statement is used to present the amount of money that has been earned and spent by a business over a specific period of time. There are three sections or parts to a cash flow statement:

  • Operating Activities: cash flows from the core activities of a business that generate income as well as cash equivalents (current assets & liabilities)
  • Investing Activities: cash flows from investments or sales of long term assets
  • Financing Activities: an action or activity that brings a change in a business’ equity capital and/or borrowings

Best Efforts Underwriting/Offering

A best efforts underwriting or offering means the underwriter will do their best to market the securities for the issuer (company, supplier, etc) to investors. The underwriter will not buy all the securities from the issuer, only those the underwriter’s clients want to purchase.



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