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Finance GlossaryGovernment Bonds
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Government Bonds

Definition of Government Bonds

Government bonds are debt instruments that allow the central banks to raise capital to finance operations. The types of government bonds are:

  • Treasury Bills
  • Fixed Rate Bonds
  • Floating Rate Bonds
  • State Development Loans
  • Sovereign Gold Bonds
  • Zero Coupon Bonds

Every government bond has a credit rating that’s based on the financial health of the country. The government is the apex institution of any country, which is why their credit rating is the high.

In India, you’ll notice government bonds with the credit rating SOV. This is known as a sovereign rating.

Related Terms

Box Spread

A box spread is a trading strategy that involves buying a bull call spread and a matching bear put spread. The components of a box spread are designed as so:

  • Bull call spread : two call options with a lower and upper strike price
  • Bear put spread : buying and selling puts at different strike prices of the same underlying asset with the same expiration

Interest Rate Risk

Interest rate risk refers to the probable decline in the value of a fixed income security because of a fluctuation in the interest rate. Fixed income securities lose value when interest rates rise whereas a bond or other debt instruments become more valuable when interest rates fall. Equity shares and securities do not carry interest rate risk.

Anaume Pattern

An Anaume Pattern can be seen when a gap is filled after a change in the direction of a security or market’s price.

Anaume Patterns are gap-filling patterns that can signal the reversal of a bearish trend, which is nothing but a potential onset of a bullish trend, when used in conjunction with other patterns.

Anaume Patterns are also known as exception exhaustion patterns.

Discounted Cash Flow

Discounted cash flow is a method of valuing a company in the present based on future cash flows. An investment may be profitable in the present if the discounted cash flow is above the current cost of investing.

The formula to calculate discounted cash flows is:

DCF = Cash Flow Year 1 / (1+r1)^1 + Cash Flow Year 2 / (1+r2)^2 + Cash Flow Year N / (1+r)^n

Follow On Public Offer

A Follow On Public Offer or FPO allows a publicly traded company to issue more stock to public investors. FPOs are similar to IPOs because FPOs allow companies to raise additional capital through the public market.

For an FPO to be possible, a company must have already done an IPO. FPO shares are typically issued at a discount by a company whose track record is already clear because they are publicly traded.

Derivative

A derivative is a financial contract that is designed to derive its value from a single or group of underlying assets, generally between two parties or more. It contains a pre-agreed date of delivery and price.

The most common examples of a derivative contract are:

  • Futures
  • Options
  • Forwards
  • Swaps

A derivative can be bought and sold on an exchange or over the counter. Since derivatives derive value from underlying assets, their price is known to fluctuate when the underlying asset gains or loses value.




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