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Finance GlossaryEuropean Option
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European Option

Definition of European Option

A European Option allows a trader to exercise the contract only on the day of expiry. For example, let’s say an options trader bought a European Call Option that expires on 01-01-2023.

The options trader can only exercise the call option, that is, buy the underlying assets on the day of expiry which is 01-01-2023. In India, traders can only engage in European options.

Related Terms

EBITDA

EBITDA is short for Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization. EBITDA allows investors to understand cash flow from all operations while excluding certain non-cash expenses related to interest, depreciation, amortization, and taxes.

That’s why investors use EBITDA as a valuation technique to determine the profitability of a company. Interestingly, EBITDA is a variation of operating income which is known as EBIT.

While there are many ways to calculate EBITDA, the most common methods include:

1) EBITDA = Net Income + Taxes + Interest + Depreciation + Amortization 2) EBITDA = Operating Income + Depreciation & Amortization

Direct Public Offerings

A Direct Public Offering or DPO allows a company to issue shares directly to the public without an intermediary like investment banks. In the process, the company becomes publicly traded.

The cost of a DPO is known to be relatively low compared to an IPO.

Furthermore, the issuer of the DPO has control over the issue price while the paperwork and effort involved is also comparatively low. That said, the company must go through proper regulatory procedures during the process.

After Hours Trading

After hours trading means buying and selling securities after the end of regular market hours. In India, the stock market is open for regular trade from 9.15 AM to 3.30 PM.

After hours trading is allowed from 3.30 PM to 4 PM. Around the world, stocks are known to suffer from a lack of liquidity during after hours trading.

Diversification

Diversification is the act of investing in more than one asset class, sector, industry, or country to mitigate risk. It is an investment strategy designed to reduce risk by pairing a volatile asset class like equities with a fixed income asset class like fixed deposits. Or, by investing in equities in one country and complementing it by investing a portfolio in stocks from another country.

Deferred Tax

The term deferred tax in a financial statement is used to refer to future tax payments in the case of temporary differences, a situation where an asset or liability on the balance sheet is realised but is taxable in the future.

Common examples of deferred tax include line items such as employee bonus or PF contributions, depreciation of fixed assets, net losses, and others.

Advance/Decline Line

An Advance/Decline Line can help you plot the daily difference between the number of advancing and declining stocks.

As a result, the Advance/Decline Line is a technical indicator used to gauge market sentiment, price trends, and trend reversals.

Here’s how the Advance/Decline Line is calculated:


  • Calculate the number of stocks that finished in the red.
  • Calculate the number of stocks that finished in the green.
  • Subtract #1 from #2 to find out the net movement aka Net Advance.
  • Repeat #1, #2, and #3 the next day and add the values for Net Advance.
  • Add both the previous day’s and the present day’s Net Advance. Repeat for future calculations.



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