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Finance GlossaryBook Entry Securities
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Book Entry Securities

Definition of Book Entry Securities

Book entry securities are financial instruments like stocks, bonds, ETFs, and others whose ownership is recorded and tracked electronically. Book building is the process of determining the potential issue price of a financial instrument based on investor demand, generally during an IPO.

For context, there was a time when physical ownership certificates were issued. If someone wanted to sell their shares, they’d have to present the ownership certificate and get it transferred to the buyer.

Book entries have made ownership certificates obsolete as they track who owns what electronically.

The trades are settled by the depository like NSDL or CSDL which sends the buyer a statement confirming ownership.

Related Terms

Foreign Direct Investment

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is the act of acquiring a majority stake in a company located in a different country with the intention of assisting, growing, and managing the business.

FDIs and FPIs may seem similar but there is a major difference - lasting interest. When a company or investor obtains at least 10% control of foreign company with the intention of actively managing the business, it’s known as lasting interest.

A company that establishes a subsidiary in another country can also be classified as FDI. FDIs can also be made through mergers and acquisitions as well as collaborations with foreign companies

India VIX

India VIX is an index that measures volatility and market sentiment. The term VIX stands for Volatility Index and thus, the full form of India VIX is Indian Volatility Index.

A higher India VIX means higher volatility whereas India VIX would be lower due periods of low volatility. In fact, there are absolute values that help understand volatility via India VIX.

India VIX typically moves between 15 to 30, which represents a range that is considered “normal” as far as volatility is concerned.

However, India VIX has touched 90 during the 2008 financial crisis and trended near the value once again when the pandemic broke out in 2020.

Deferred Tax Asset

A deferred tax asset is an item on a company’s financial statement that can be used to get tax relief, generally in the event of overpaying taxes or net losses that are carried forward.

Companies tend to deduct these overpayments or losses for accounting purposes and to reduce their overall taxable income. Common examples of deferred tax assets include:

  • Depreciation of fixed assets
  • Net financial loss
  • Bad debt

Equity Capital Markets

Equity capital markets (ECMs) are a place where companies raise money by offering equity shares to financial firms, institutional investors, and retail investors.

Fund raising of this kind is often done through private placements or Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) in the primary market, which is a part of the ECM. The biggest IPOs in India are all part of the ECM.

The equity capital market is also a place where shares, futures, options, and other financial instruments are traded. This part of the ECM is known as the secondary market. The stock market is a popular example of an ECM.

Benchmark

A benchmark is a standard used by investors to compare the performance of a stock, commodity, or other securities.

Stock indices like Nifty 50, Sensex, Nifty Bank, and others are often used as benchmarks to evaluate the performance of one or more stocks.

The onset of a bear market is generally in tandem with poor economic conditions.

Benchmarks are not just used for evaluating markets or securities, they can also be used to assess the performance of an investor or wealth manager. Here are some outcomes if the returns are:

  • Greater than benchmark: the asset is doing considerably well (great)
  • Same as benchmark: the asset is moving with the market (okay)
  • Less than benchmark: the asset is performing poorly (bad)

High Dividend Yield Stocks

High Dividend Yield Stocks are shares of companies that generate above average dividends on top of regular market-based returns. These shares are known to be valued highly because they generate passive income as well as capital gains.



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