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Finance GlossaryCapital Expenditure
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Capital Expenditure

Definition of Capital Expenditure

Capital expenditure or CapEx is the amount of money a company spends on maintaining, upgrading, or buying new assets like machinery, equipment, property, and others.

Related Terms

Fair Value

The fair value of a stock, product, or service is the price at which the buyer and seller willingly agree on without being on the losing end of the deal. Think of fair value as a win-win situation for both parties, assuming that all conditions are normal.

Say Mr. Apple is offered to buy shares of Mr. Orange’s company at Rs. 1000 per share. Mr. Apple evaluates the business and figures out that he can sell the same shares for Rs. 1200, even though Mr. Orange is content to sell the shares at Rs. 200 lower. Both parties agree on the deal at Rs. 1000 because both view it as a good deal.

The formula for the fair value of a stock or index is:

Fair Value = Cash * { 1 + r (X / 360)} - D

Where,

Cash = Latest stock or index value

r = interest rate on purchase

x = number of days to contract expiry

Dividend = Dividends

The definition of fair value is slightly different in the futures market. In the futures market, the fair value is reached when the supply meets the demand, which simply means that the spot price is equal to the futures contractprice.

However, due to inherent volatility of the markets, the price of a futures contract is known to fluctuate around the fair value of a stock or index. Thus, in the fair value in the context of futures is what the price of the contract should be, given the value of the stock or index, dividends, and others.

Cash Market

A cash market is a place where assets, goods, and services are bought and sold on the spot. That’s why it is also known as the “spot market”.

A stock market exchange like NSE or BSE is an example of a cash market as trades are settled on the spot at the spot price. Derivatives like futures are not a part of the cash market are trades are settled in the future.

Book Building

Book building is the process of determining the potential issue price of a financial instrument based on investor demand, generally during an IPO.

Book building is typically done by an underwriter (like an investment bank) who will invite institutional investors like hedge funds, mutual funds, and others to submit bids for the financial instrument.

These bids act as a range that the underwriter can use to fix a price that satisfies the company issuing the security and market participants.

Alpha

An Alpha indicates the measure by which a stock or portfolio has managed to outperform a benchmark like an index of shares.

A positive Alpha means that the security or portfolio is beating the market while a negative Alpha means that it is lagging.

Alpha can also be used to measure the competence of a fund manager and their strategies.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents are short-term assets or holdings which fall under the current assets of a business. Cash and cash equivalents have very high liquidity. When you take the term literally, you have two components:

  • Cash: money like cash holdings in a bank account, petty cash, and others
  • Cash equivalents: assets or investments like T-bills, commercial paper, and others that have a short maturity which can easily be converted into cash

Circuit Breaker

A circuit breaker or market curb is a measure that exchanges use to put a stop to all trading activities across an index or entire market. This regulatory measure is put in place to curb panic selling, especially when markets are in free fall.

That’s why circuit breakers are also known as trading curbs and are put in place when an index or market reaches a specific level. These are the current circuit breaker limits on NSE:

Circuit Breaker Trigger Trading Halt Duration
10% 0-45 minutes
15% 45 minutes; 1 hour 45 minutes; rest of the day
20% Rest of the day



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