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Finance GlossaryCommon Stocks
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Common Stocks

Definition of Common Stocks

A common stock is a type of share that gives the holder the right to a part of a company’s profits, voting on key policies and decisions. Common stockholders have an advantage over preferred stockholders because they can:

  • Get higher returns
  • A part of the assets left after a company is liquidated (in case of default)

Related Terms

Face Value

The term face value refers to the actual price of a stock that’s obtained by dividing a company’s net value by its total shares outstanding. In India, the face value of shares can range from Rs. 1 to Rs. 100.

However, the market value of the share may vary. At times, the difference can be drastic. For example, the face value of an MRF share is Rs. 10 but the market value (LTP) of the same share is Rs. 86,313.45.

Face value is also known as nominal value or par value. The latter is used frequently in the case of bonds.

The face value of a bond is the amount that an investor receives from the issuer on maturity. Similar to stocks, bonds and other fixed income instruments may have a different face value and market value.

Annual General Meeting

An Annual General Meeting or AGM is an event where a company’s board of directors presents the annual report, future outlook, and strategy to shareholders. AGMs serve as one of the few occasions when shareholders get to interact with a company’s board of directors.

Bought Out Deal

A bought-out deal is a stock offering where an investment bank buys the entire issue of shares from a company. In turn, the investment bank will attempt to sell the shares to other investors. A deal of this kind has two benefits:

  • The company need not worry about subscription as the investment bank will purchase the entire offering
  • The investment bank can negotiate with the company and get the shares at a discount

That said, there are risks to a bought out deal like:

  • It is up to the investment bank to sell the shares to investors in order to recoup the principal or make a profit
  • The investment bank also runs the risk of receiving no interest in the shares from other investors
  • Guarantee purchase

If the issue size of the bought-out deal is large enough, the investment bank may team up with others to fulfil the purchase.

Deferred Tax Liability

A deferred tax liability is line item on a company’s balance sheet that refers to taxes that owed but due in the future. Common examples of deferred tax liabilities include:

  • Paying less tax
  • Sales in instalments

Commodity Spread Straddle

A commodity spread straddle or simply a commodity straddle is an options trading strategy where a trader will buy call and put options with the same strike price and expiration date.

The goal of a commodity straddle is to create a neutral strategy that wins in the event that the underlying security’s price rises or falls. That said, the profits must be higher than the total premium paid for the options.

Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR)

Compounded Annual Growth Rate shows how much returns on average an investment can generate over a year, given the data for a period of time (say 5+ years).

CAGR is an indicative measure of yearly returns growth that assumes the profits are reinvested. The formula to calculate Compound Annual Growth Rate is:

CAGR = [(Ending value/Beginning Value)^(1/N)]-1



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