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Finance GlossaryBond Market
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Bond Market

Definition of Bond Market

A bond market is a place where bonds are issued, bought, and sold. Bonds are issued in exchange for a loan generally by governments and corporations.

Related Terms

Book Running Lead Manager

A book running lead manager is the head or lead of the underwriting process when new shares or securities are issued for their client, most commonly during an IPO.

For context, there was a time when physical ownership certificates were issued. If someone wanted to sell their shares, they’d have to present the ownership certificate and get it transferred to the buyer.

Also known as the book runner, the book running lead manager handles these crucial elements of the underwriting process:

  • Perform due diligence
  • Determine the final offering price
  • Record & track interested buyers
  • Confirm orders
  • Guarantee purchase

Contingent Liabilities

A contingent liability is shown on a balance sheet for an event that may or may not happen in the future. The potential liability arising out of such an uncertain event is recorded as a contingency in both GAAP and IFRS accounting standards.

Annual Earnings Change

An Annual Earnings Change is the difference between a company’s earnings from the present and previous fiscal year. The formula for annual earnings change is:

Current Fiscal Year Earnings - Previous Fiscal Year Earnings

Say for example a liquid nitrogen manufacturing company earned Rs. 50 crores in the current fiscal year and Rs. 29 crores in the previous fiscal year. Their annual earnings change will be:
Rs. 50 crores - Rs. 29 crores = Rs. 21 crores.

Founders Stock

The term founders stock refers to shares issued to the founders of a company. This type of stock is issued at face value and carries a vesting period, which is a lock-in period during which the shares cannot be sold.

During this period, the founders stock may not earn any returns, unless there are dividends attached to it. Founders stock is not an accounting term - it is used colloquially to denote the shares issued to founders.

Inflation

Inflation is defined as the rise in the price of goods and services with a declining purchasing power amongst the general population. The primary cause of inflation is a surge in demand that can not be met with the same level of supply.

Capital Gains Exemption

Capital gains exemption is the tax break that a government offers on profits earned by selling assets. Generally, an investor must pay a tax on the short-term capital gains or long-term capital gains earned.

But in certain cases, the government allows investors to offset taxes. For example, if an investor sells property and reinvests the entire amount back again into another property, they can avail of capital gains exemption.



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