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Hedging

Definition of Hedging

Hedging is a risk management technique where potential loss is offset by securing a safer, more stable trade. For example, buying stock (risky) and offsetting the risk with commodity (stable) is a common hedging practice in the securities market.

In the derivatives market, hedging is followed by merchants and businesses who want to protect against adverse price movements in commodities or currencies. They do so by entering into a futures or options contract.

Related Terms

CANSLIM

CANSLIM is an acronym for a seven-step strategy to pick growth stocks by combining fundamental and technical analysis. Here’s the full form of CANSLIM:

  • Current quarterly Earnings Per Share (EPS): compare this fundamental indicator with the same figure from the previous quarter. If the figure grows (by 20% or more as a rule of thumb), the company is fundamentally strong.

  • Annual earnings: Compare this fundamental indicator from the previous years. If there’s year-on-year growth, the company is fundamentally strong. If the year-on-year growth is by 20-25%, even better.

  • New product or service: strong companies continue to innovate. That’s what this letter is about - checking if the company is continuously launching new products, services, or holding events.

  • Supply: a fundamentally strong business should have a good supply and demand when it comes to its goods, services, and stock. Executive supply of shares may reduce the value of the company - that’s why it should always be scarce in supply.

  • Leader: the company should be a leader in its own right, either in or across industries.

  • Institutional holding: a valuable company will have higher institutional ownership, the percentage of which should always be tracked.

  • Market trend: an investor must check whether the company or stock is going or against the trend by comparing it to broader indices.

Averaging Down

Averaging down means buying more shares when the price drops, thereby bringing down your overall average cost of investing. For example:

Day 1 (Normal price)

  • Shares bought of XYZ: 10
  • Price of each share: Rs. 1000
  • Total cost of investing: Rs. 10,000
  • Average investment cost: Rs. 1000


Day 2 (Lower price)

  • Shares bought of XYZ: 10
  • Price of each share: Rs. 900
  • Total cost of investing: Rs. 9,000
  • Average investment cost: Rs. 900


Averaging Down

  • Initial average cost of investing (Day 1): Rs. 1000
  • New average cost of investing (Day 1 & Day 2): Rs. 950

Earnings Per Share

Earnings Per Share or EPS refers to the amount of profit that a company generates per outstanding share it has in the stock market. It is calculated by dividing the net income of a company by its shares outstanding.

Formula to calculate Earnings Per Share: Net Income / Number of Outsanding Shares

Generally, dividends distributed to preferred shareholders are deducted from the net income for EPS calculations. The EPS of a company can thus indicate whether or not it is generating enough profit. It can also be used as a valuation metric.

Diversification

Diversification is the act of investing in more than one asset class, sector, industry, or country to mitigate risk. It is an investment strategy designed to reduce risk by pairing a volatile asset class like equities with a fixed income asset class like fixed deposits. Or, by investing in equities in one country and complementing it by investing a portfolio in stocks from another country.

Growth Stocks

Growth stocks are shares of companies that have the potential to outperform the market. These are stocks can grow faster than the market due to strong fundamental characteristics like a strong balance sheet, high Earnings Per Share, solid P/E, and more that can bolster its profits in the medium to long term.

Book Building

Book building is the process of determining the potential issue price of a financial instrument based on investor demand, generally during an IPO.

Book building is typically done by an underwriter (like an investment bank) who will invite institutional investors like hedge funds, mutual funds, and others to submit bids for the financial instrument.

These bids act as a range that the underwriter can use to fix a price that satisfies the company issuing the security and market participants.



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